But the title of this, the General Organisation for Cinema and Theatre, points to the lack of autonomy of filmmaking in Iraq at this time. Zaccak, Le cinéma libanais, His one recognized skill is repairing radios. Even before they could accustom themselves to their new, artificial, boundaries and their imposed systems of government, they were plunged into war, when the state of Israel was formally established in Born in in Saudi Arabia, he studied philosophy and film in London. Following the success of his first feature, he made some twenty-four commercial feature films between and , some co-produced with Syria.
|Nom:||film jounoun al hayat|
|Système d’exploitation:||Windows, Mac, Android, iOS|
|Licence:||Usage Personnel Seulement|
When the Ottoman Empire disintegrated in , there was no move to impose a European solution on Saudi Arabia or North Yemen—they were simply ignored—and they achieved their independence in and , respectively. Ben Hirsi constructs a deftly shaped lighthearted narrative, broken up by snatches of questioning voice-over by a narrator intrigued by his discoveries of an unknown culture, and enlivened by musical interludes. At the age of 15, he began making amateur films and in , at 21, he began formal film training. The second full-scale Israeli assault in succeeded in expelling the PLO from Lebanon, leaving the Palestinian refugees in the Sabra and Shatilla camps totally at the mercy of Maronite forces, which, with the complicity of the Israelis, slaughtered thousands of men, women, and children. Short films and documentaries — Hamid Naficy, An Accented Cinema: Zionism, be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-old traditions, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder import than the desires and prejudices of the , Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land.
Arab Filmmakers of the Middle East: While neighboring countries, such as Turkey, Israel, and Iran, have coherent national film histories which have been comprehensively documented, the Arab Middle East has been given comparatively little attention.
He has published widely on world cinema. Listing more than feature films by more than filmmakers, and short and documentary films by another filmmakers, this volume covers the film production in Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, and the Gulf States. An introduction by Armes locates film and filmmaking traditions in the region from early efforts in the silent era to statefunded productions by isolated filmmakers and politically engaged documentarians. Part 1 lists biographical information about Roy Armes the filmmakers and their feature films.
Part 2 details key feature films from the countries represented.
Arab filmmakers of the Middle East: Includes bibliographical references and indexes. Motion picture producers and directors— Arab countries—Biography—Dictionaries. Motion picture producers and directors— Arab countries—Credits. Motion picture industry—Arab countries. Hope for liberation and independence. Hope for a normal life where we shall be neither heroes nor victims. Hope to see our children go to school without danger. Hope for a pregnant woman to give birth to a living baby, in a hospital, and not to a dead child in front of a military control post.
Hope that our poets will see the beauty of the colour red in roses, rather than in blood. Hope that this land will recover its original name: Thank you for carrying with us this banner of hope.
In compiling it, I have drawn on the full range of material listed in the bibliography at the end of this volume. The principal published sources on which I have drawn, which demand special mention and which all contain more information on specific films and filmmakers than can be contained here, are, in order of publication: Diccionario de realizadores Madrid: Appunti sul nuovo cinema palestinese Palermo: On Palestinian Cinema London: Landscape, Trauma and Memory Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Equally indispensable have been CinémArabe Paris, —International Film Guide London, —, —Images Nord-Sud Paris, fromand the catalogues and web pages of various film festivals: Statistics concerning national size, population, and gross domestic product GDP are xii taken from seven World Hhayat published as daily supplements to the Guardian in Individuals to whom I owe a very real and specific debt for information and encouragement beyond the call of duty are numerous.
I owe a huge debt to Martine Leroy, for access to her data base on Middle Eastern films. Moreover, I am deeply grateful to the Leverhulme Trust for awarding me the second Jounonu Emeritus Fellowship, which has allowed me to finance both this dictionary and its predecessor, the Dictionary of African Filmmakers.
Though I have made every effort to check the information given, errors and omissions are inevitable in a work of this nature, fi,m I would welcome contact from any readers who can help correct the mistakes and fill the gaps. Their names are listed at the end of the relevant feature film chronology, fulm their work is not indexed.
The Arab Middle East has not developed the kind of overwhelming output of fictional features on video, characteristic of Anglophone Africa especially Nigeria, where many thousands of jounpun videos have been produced and distributed since the sso I have been able to include work shot on video principally Beta SP and more recently HDas well as 35mm and 16mm film productions.
Reference is also made to the increasing quantity of documentary material produced by the various Arab satellite television companies and intended principally fipm broadcasting. Al Jazeera English, for example, has of late hounoun both funding and considerable editorial freedom for documentary filmmakers from the joumoun Arab world. It is interesting too to note that, despite the technological developments and new promotional strategies which are likely to lead to a totally different media situation in the coming decade, the bulk of fictional feature films made in the Arab Middle East, like those in Africa, continue to be shot and distributed for initial exhibition purposes on 35mm film.
The catalogues of the twentieth, twenty-first, and twenty-second editions of the JCC Journées Cinématographiques de Carthage, Tunis, and show the continued strength and importance of conventional 35mm jouboun across Africa and the Arab jounokn, as well as the growing number of works, even by established filmmakers, which are digitally produced and reflect television formats: In general, I have included in my chronological listings of fictional features all those works which are treated as such fipm the organizers of Arab and international film festivals, even if the works in question do not, strictly zl, fulfill the conventional length requirements of a feature film.
With regard to documentary production now almost entirely in some digital format or otherI have excluded from the feature listings all works in the conventional minute television format, though such works are referred to, of course, in the individual filmmaker entries. The result, at the moment of going to press, is a list of over feature-length works made by around feature filmmakers, whose efforts are backed up by those jounpun some short and filn filmmakers, many of them students graduating from one of the numerous audio-visual training courses in the area.
This dictionary offers broadly the same kind of information as that contained in its predecessor, the Dictionary of African Filmmakers.
TÉLÉCHARGER MUSIC ZAYANE
The work begins with an introduction, which sets out to place the filmmaking in its historical context. In an area like the Middle East, which has been constantly torn by jlunoun and internal strife, it seemed to me crucial to spell out this contextual situation, because it has had so profound an influence on the work of all feature filmmakers and has also led to the production of a mass of committed documentary filmmaking.
Part 1 comprises an alphabetical listing of all the Arab filmmakers from the Middle East whom I have been able to locate. The names of those who have completed at least one fictional or documentary feature-length film shot on 35mm, 16mm film, or in some video format are distinguished by being set in capital letters. Because of the nature of film production in the Middle Jounonu, particularly in, and in relation to, Palestine, the listing of filmmakers includes documentary and short film directors.
Here too Haat have relaxed—as the filmmakers themselves do—any distinction between film and video productions. Film entries in these director listings include mention of date, length, and format, where this information is available. Part 2 deals in alphabetical order with the countries to which the feature filmmakers are conventionally jouniun.
TÉLÉCHARGER MUSIC ZAYANE
Because of the minimal amount of feature filmmaking that has occurred to date in the seven states of the Gulf, these are grouped together at the end though there are huge differences between Yemen gayat its royal or princely neighbors. Each chronology of national feature-film output is preceded by a list of feature filmmakers, followed by a similar listing of relevant short and documentary filmmakers, and supplemented by a selection of bibliographical references.
The dates of films given here can be no more than approximate, since I have used a wide variety of sources, some employing production dates and others using release dates. Part 3 is an index of feature-film titles in both English and French.
The Arabic transcriptions of the film titles are very simplified forms, derived from a variety of national sources and intended merely to identify and differentiate films, which, in many cases, do not have formal English or French titles. These transcriptions are not indexed. The bibliography lists books on relevant aspects of world cinema and book-length studies of Arab filmmaking within the Middle East, as well as a selection of books relating to the political development of the various countries and areas of the Middle East.
It is a striking testimony to the former power and continuing influence of the West that this parochial term, meaningful only in a Western perspective, has come to be used all over the world. It is even used by the peoples of the region it denotes to describe their own homelands.
This is the more remarkable in an age of national, communal, and regional self-assertion, mostly in anti-Western form. It excludes filmmakers from the Maghreb and from Egypt except for the handful of Egyptian filmmakers who have made the occasional film for Middle Eastern producersas these have already been dealt with in an earlier volume, Dictionary of African Filmmakers. A noble but embattled state. Even for those Arabs who do belong to a recognized national state, the story has been almost as bleak, with a unified Arab identity denied by the divisive actions of the European powers, which, after World War I, arbitrarily set their borders and systems of government and, without consultation, introduced Israel into their midst.
It is a story of internal feuding and repeated defeat and humiliation at the hands of Israel and its all-powerful patrons. The fragmented history of Arab Middle Eastern cinema—with its powerful documentary component—reflects all too clearly the fragmented history of the Arab peoples and is indeed comprehensible only when this history is taken into account. Screenings were set up in the palace and at the residences of prominent citizens, and a first public screening was arranged at the Spontek Restaurant in a cosmopolitan district of Istanbul.
They all stopped there during trips to Moscow, still ruled by the tsar. The resulting shots taken in the Ottoman Empire appeared in the Lumière catalogue from The Pathé representative in the Ottoman Empire, a Polish Jew with Rumanian nationality, Sigmund Weinburg, was also apparently active as early as and indeed had a more lasting impact on the introduction of cinema to Turkey, by setting up the first permanent public cinema in He also initially headed the army film unit, which pioneered filmmaking in Turkey at the beginning of the First World War, before being expelled as an alien.
Though the sultan, Abdul Hamid II, was a passionate supporter of photography, he disliked the cinema and offered no support to the foreigners who were seeking to introduce it into his realm. Promio is quoted as saying: I have little to say about my trip to Turkey, except that I had great difficulty in introducing my camera. Defeat left Turkey at the mercy of its wartime enemies, and the victorious European states, France and Britain, occupied the whole Middle East and proceeded to impose their will upon the remains of the Empire.
One of the many crucial European decisions and agreements regarding the Middle East had already been made inwith the unilateral declaration of support for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine by the British foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour. This declaration led directly to the establishment of Israel in and changed the course of history in the Middle East forever.
Chillingly, Balfour is quoted as saying that, In Palestine we do not propose even to go through the form of consulting the wishes of the present inhabitants of the country. Zionism, be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-old traditions, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder import than the desires and prejudices of theArabs who now inhabit that ancient land.
In the early s, when Turkey transformed itself in defeat from an empire and caliphate into a modern secular nation-state built on the European model, various proposals were put forward by Arab leaders for the reshaping of their own lands. But emboldened by the increasing retreat of the United States into isolationism after the wartime interventionist idealism of Woodrow Wilson, the French and British governments felt able to ignore Arab wishes just as Balfour had done in The changes they made while their troops occupied the Middle East met with far greater opposition than Turkish rule had ever faced.
There were revolts against the French in Syria in, anda major uprising against the British in Iraq inand continual fighting in Palestine, which stemmed from Arab opposition to increasing Jewish settlement. But French and English power prevailed. The Arabs had all these. Furthermore, as its hybrid pseudo-Hellenic name suggests, its stretch does not remotely 4 Arab Filmmakers of the Middle East correspond to any precolonial domain.
As Anderson points out, the apparently innocent practice common to European imperial states of coloring their colonies on maps pink-red for British colonies, purple-blue for French, yellow-brown for Dutch had an unanticipated outcome: The image shifted from being the map of an existing reality to becoming the sign of an imaginary unity: What stood in the way of an Arab state was not internal barriers.
External forces kept the Arabs apart. On this basis, the French and the British took upon themselves not just the definition and boundaries of the new states but also the choice of their systems of government and the identity of the rulers who were installed.
What had been Greater Syria was divided up to create three new states, Syria and Lebanon under French mandates and Palestine under the British, who promptly subdivided their area to create a fourth state, TransJordan. Also under British mandate was the newly created state of Iraq, put together from three ethnically and religiously diverse Ottoman provinces, centered on Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra, respectively.
The mandates were finalized by the mids, but though the ostensible aim was for these new states to be led toward independence, this occurred only in the very changed circumstances of the late s. No account was taken of Kurdish demands for their own independent state in the north, while the new Middle Eastern arrangements totally ignored Saudi Arabia, out of which Ibn Saud was to create a fully independent state byand the already independent North Yemen, presumably because both were judged too difficult to colonize.
Given the upheavals of this pre-independence period, it is remarkable that any film activity at all occurred. There seems indeed to have been no film activity in Iraq until after independence inbut Syria and Leba- Introduction non both have pioneers to rank with Albert Samama Chikly in Tunisia and the Egyptians Mohamed Bayoumi and Mohamed Karim.
Both were silent features that found themselves in competition with the first Egyptian sound films. A further Lebanese pioneer, Ali al-Ariss, was less fortunate.
He had to leave his first feature, The Flower Seller unfinished, and he is reported to have protested outside the cinema screening his second feature, The Planet of the Desert Princessbecause it had been re-edited by the producer.